Carys A. Croft
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Researcher at Université de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité
Inborn errors of human IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report a patient with mycobacterial disease due to an inherited deficiency of the transcription factor T-bet. This deficiency abolishes the expression of T-bet target genes, including IFNG , by altering chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation in CD4+ T cells. The patient has profoundly diminished counts of mycobacterial-reactive circulating NK, invariant NKT (iNKT), mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), and Vδ2+ γδ T lymphocytes, and of non-mycobacterial-reactive classic TH1 lymphocytes, the remainders of which also produce abnormally low amounts of IFN-γ. Other IFN-γ-producing lymphocyte subsets however develop normally, but with low levels of IFN-γ production, with exception of Vδ2− γδ T lymphocytes, which produce normal amounts of IFN-γ in response to non-mycobacterial stimulation, and non-classic TH1 (TH1*) lymphocytes, which produce IFN-γ normally in response to mycobacterial antigens. Human T-bet deficiency thus underlies mycobacterial disease by preventing the development of, and IFN-γ production by, innate (NK) and innate-like adaptive lymphocytes (iNKT, MAIT, and Vδ2+ γδ T cells), with mycobacterial-specific, IFN-γ-producing, purely adaptive αβ TH1* cells unable to compensate for this deficit. ### Competing Interest Statement Dr. Glimcher serves on the Board of Directors of GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceutical Company and the Analog Device Corporation and formerly served on the Boards of Bristol Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Company and the Waters Corporation. She is also on the Scientific Advisory Boards of Abpro, Kaleido, and Repare biotechnology companies. Dr. Casanova serves on the Scientific Advisory Boards of ADMA Biologics Inc., Celgene and Kymera Therapeutics, Inc.. He also consults for Elixiron Immunotherapeutics. Other authors declare no competing interests.