Profile Url: conor-gruber
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Inborn errors of human IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report a patient with mycobacterial disease due to an inherited deficiency of the transcription factor T-bet. This deficiency abolishes the expression of T-bet target genes, including IFNG , by altering chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation in CD4+ T cells. The patient has profoundly diminished counts of mycobacterial-reactive circulating NK, invariant NKT (iNKT), mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), and Vδ2+ γδ T lymphocytes, and of non-mycobacterial-reactive classic TH1 lymphocytes, the remainders of which also produce abnormally low amounts of IFN-γ. Other IFN-γ-producing lymphocyte subsets however develop normally, but with low levels of IFN-γ production, with exception of Vδ2− γδ T lymphocytes, which produce normal amounts of IFN-γ in response to non-mycobacterial stimulation, and non-classic TH1 (TH1*) lymphocytes, which produce IFN-γ normally in response to mycobacterial antigens. Human T-bet deficiency thus underlies mycobacterial disease by preventing the development of, and IFN-γ production by, innate (NK) and innate-like adaptive lymphocytes (iNKT, MAIT, and Vδ2+ γδ T cells), with mycobacterial-specific, IFN-γ-producing, purely adaptive αβ TH1* cells unable to compensate for this deficit. ### Competing Interest Statement Dr. Glimcher serves on the Board of Directors of GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceutical Company and the Analog Device Corporation and formerly served on the Boards of Bristol Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Company and the Waters Corporation. She is also on the Scientific Advisory Boards of Abpro, Kaleido, and Repare biotechnology companies. Dr. Casanova serves on the Scientific Advisory Boards of ADMA Biologics Inc., Celgene and Kymera Therapeutics, Inc.. He also consults for Elixiron Immunotherapeutics. Other authors declare no competing interests.
Initially, the global outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spared children from severe disease. However, after the initial wave of infections, clusters of a novel hyperinflammatory disease have been reported in regions with ongoing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. While the characteristic clinical features are becoming clear, the pathophysiology remains unknown. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of eight Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) cases. We document that all MIS-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with normal isotype-switching and neutralization capability. We further profiled the secreted immune response by high-dimensional cytokine assays, which identified elevated signatures of inflammation (IL-18 and IL-6), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation (CCL3, CCL4, and CDCP1) and mucosal immune dysregulation (IL-17A, CCL20, CCL28). Mass cytometry immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of mDC1 and non-classical monocytes, as well as both NK- and T- lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Markers of activated myeloid function were also evident, including upregulation of ICAM1 and FcR1 in neutrophil and non-classical monocytes, well-documented markers in autoinflammation and autoimmunity that indicate enhanced antigen presentation and Fc-mediated responses. Finally, to assess the role for autoimmunity secondary to infection, we profiled the auto-antigen reactivity of MIS-C plasma, which revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti- IL6R antibody or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution tracking with normalization of inflammatory markers.