Profile Url: greg-mcinnes
Researcher at Stanford University, Department of Biomedical Data Science
Pharmacogenetics studies how genetic variation leads to variability in drug response. Guidelines for selecting the right drug and right dose to patients based on their genetics are clinically effective, but are still widely unused. For some drugs, the normal clinical decision making process may lead to the optimal dose of a drug that minimizes side effects and maximizes effectiveness. Without measurements of genotype, physicians and patients may observe and adjust dosage in a manner that reflects the underlying genetics. The emergence of genetic data linked to longitudinal clinical data in large biobanks offers an opportunity to confirm known pharmacogenetic interactions as well as discover novel associations by investigating outcomes from normal clinical practice. Here we use the UK Biobank to search for pharmacogenetic interactions among 200 drugs and 9 genes among 200,000 participants. We identify associations between pharmacogene phenotypes and drug maintenance dose as well as side effect incidence. We find support for several known drug-gene associations as well as novel pharmacogenetic interactions. ### Competing Interest Statement R.B.A. is a stockholder in Personalis.com, 23andme.com.
PLOS Computational Biology, 2020-11-02
Cytochrome P450 2D6 ( CYP2D6 ) is a highly polymorphic gene whose protein product metabolizes more than 20% of clinically used drugs. Genetic variations in CYP2D6 are responsible for interindividual heterogeneity in drug response that can lead to drug toxicity and ineffective treatment, making CYP2D6 one of the most important pharmacogenes. Prediction of CYP2D6 phenotype relies on curation of literature-derived functional studies to assign a functional status to CYP2D6 haplotypes. As the number of large-scale sequencing efforts grows, new haplotypes continue to be discovered, and assignment of function is challenging to maintain. To address this challenge, we have trained a deep learning model to predict functional status of CYP2D6 haplotypes, called Hubble.2D6. We find that Hubble.2D6 predicts CYP2D6 haplotype functional status with 88% accuracy in a held out test set and explains a significant amount of the variability in in vitro functional data. Hubble.2D6 may be a useful tool for assigning function to haplotypes with uncurated function, which may be used for screening individuals who are at risk of being poor metabolizers.
The scale and speed of the COVID-19 pandemic has strained many parts of the national healthcare infrastructure, including communicable disease monitoring and prevention. Many local health departments now receive hundreds or thousands of COVID-19 case reports a day. Many arrive via faxed handwritten forms, often intermingled with other faxes sent to a general fax line, making it difficult to rapidly identify the highest priority cases for outreach and monitoring. We present an AI-based system capable of real-time identification and triage of handwritten faxed COVID-19 forms. The system relies on two models: one model to identify which received pages correspond to case report forms, and a second model to extract information from the set of identified case reports. We evaluated the system on a set of 1,224 faxes received by a local health department over a two-week period. For the 88% of faxes of sufficient quality, the system detects COVID-19 reports with high precision, 0.98, and high recall, 0.91. Among all received COVID-19 faxes, the system identifies high priority cases with a specificity of 0.87, a precision of 0.46 and recall of 0.83. Our system can be adapted to new forms, after a brief training period. Covid Fast Fax can support local health departments in their efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 and limit its impact on the community. The tool is freely available.
Genetics plays a key role in drug response, affecting efficacy and toxicity. Pharmacogenomics aims to understand how genetic variation influences drug response and develop clinical guidelines to aid clinicians in personalized treatment decisions informed by genetics. Although pharmacogenomics has not been broadly adopted into clinical practice, genetics influences treatment decisions regardless. Physicians adjust patient care based on observed response to medication, which may occur as a result of genetic variants harbored by the patient. Here we seek to understand the genetics of drug selection in statin therapy, a class of drugs widely used for high cholesterol treatment. Genetics are known to play an important role in statin efficacy and toxicity, leading to significant changes in patient outcome. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on statin selection among 59,198 participants in the UK Biobank and found that variants known to influence statin efficacy are significantly associated with statin selection. Specifically, we find that carriers of variants in APOE and LPA that are known to decrease efficacy of treatment are more likely to be on atorvastatin, a stronger statin. Additionally, carriers of the APOE and LPA variants are more likely to be on a higher intensity dose (a dose that reduces low‑density lipoprotein cholesterol by greater than 40%) of atorvastatin than non-carriers (APOE: p(high intensity) = 0.16, OR = 1.7, P = 1.64 x 10-4, LPA: p(high intensity) = 0.17, OR = 1.4, P = 1.14 x 10-2). These findings represent the largest genetic association study of statin selection and statin dose association to date and provide evidence for the role of LPA and APOE in statin response, furthering the possibility of personalized statin therapy. ### Competing Interest Statement R.B.A. is a stockholder in Personalis.com, 23andme.com. M.A.R. is on the SAB of 54Gene and Computational Advisory Board for Goldfinch Bio and has advised BioMarin, Third Rock Ventures, MazeTx and Related Sciences.
Pharmacogenetics (PGx) studies the influence of genetic variation on drug response. Clinically actionable associations inform guidelines created by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC), but the broad impact of genetic variation on entire populations is not well-understood. We analyzed PGx allele and phenotype frequencies for 487,409 participants in the U.K. Biobank, the largest PGx study to date. For fourteen CPIC pharmacogenes known to influence human drug response, we find that 99.5% of individuals may have an atypical response to at least one drug; on average they may have an atypical response to 12 drugs. Non-European populations carry a greater frequency of variants that are predicted to be functionally deleterious; many of these are not captured by current PGx allele definitions. Strategies for detecting and interpreting rare variation will be critical for enabling broad application of pharmacogenetics. ### Competing Interest Statement R.B.A. is a stockholder in Personalis.com, 23andme.com.