Implications of data-driven analyses for personalized therapy in psychosis: a systematic review of cluster- and trajectory-based modelling studies

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Introduction To tackle the phenotypic heterogeneity of schizophrenia, data-driven methods are often applied to identify subtypes of its (sub)clinical symptoms though there is no systematic review. Aims To summarize the evidence from cluster- and trajectory-based studies of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, their siblings and healthy people. Additionally, we aimed to highlight knowledge gaps and point out future directions to optimize the translatability of cluster- and trajectory-based studies. Methods A systematic review was performed through searching PsycINFO, PubMed, PsycTESTS, PsycARTICLES, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Web of Science electronic databases. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies published from 2008 to 2019, which reported at least two statistically derived clusters or trajectories were included. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted the data. Results Of 2,285 studies retrieved, 50 studies (17 longitudinal and 33 cross-sectional) conducted in 30 countries were selected for review. Longitudinal studies discovered two to five trajectories of positive and negative symptoms in patient, and four to five trajectories of cognitive deficits in patient and sibling. In cross-sectional studies, three clusters of positive and negative symptoms in patient, four clusters of positive and negative schizotypy in sibling, and three to five clusters of cognitive deficits in patient and sibling were identified. These studies also reported multidimensional predictors of clusters and trajectories. Conclusions Our findings indicate that (sub)clinical symptoms of schizophrenia are more heterogeneous than currently recognized. Identified clusters and trajectories can be used as a basis for personalized psychiatry.

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