Sex-Specific Cross Tissue Meta-Analysis Identifies Immune Dysregulation in Women with Alzheimer's Disease

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Author Name

Manish D Paranjpe

Stella Belonwu

Jason K. Wang

Tomiko Oskotsky

Aarzu Gupta

Alice Taubes

Kelly Zalokusky

Ishan Paranjpe

Benjamin S Glicksberg


Yadong Huang

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CA3 Neuroscience Hippocampus Learning Memory

Marina Sirota

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In spite of evidence of females having a greater lifetime risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and greater apolipoprotein E4-related (apoE4) AD risk compared to males, molecular signatures underlying these findings remain elusive. We took a meta-analysis approach to study gene expression in the brains of 1,084 AD patients and age-matched controls and whole blood from 645 AD patients and age-matched controls. Gene-expression, network-based analysis and cell type deconvolution approaches revealed a consistent immune signature in the brain and blood of female AD patients that was absent in males. Machine learning-based classification of AD using gene expression from whole blood in addition to clinical features revealed an improvement in classification accuracy upon stratifying by sex, achieving an AUROC of 0.91 for females and 0.80 for males. These results help identify sex and apoE4 genotype-specific transcriptomic signatures of AD and underscore the importance of considering sex in the development of biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for AD. ### Competing Interest Statement Y.H. is a co-founder and scientific advisory board member of E-Scape Bio, Inc. and GABAeron, Inc. M.S. is on the scientific advisory board for twoXAR. The other authors declare no competing interests.

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