Profile Url: shyamapada-mandal
Researcher at Department of Zoology, University of Gour Banga
Due to non-availability of specific therapeutics against COVID-19, repurposing of approved drugs is a reasonable option. Cytokines imbalance in COVID-19 resembles cancer; exploration of anti-inflammatory agents, might reduce COVID-19 mortality. The current study investigates the effect of ruxolitinib treatment in SARS-CoV-2 infected alveolar cells compared to the uninfected one from the GSE5147507 dataset. The protein-protein interaction network, biological process and functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes were studied using STRING App of the Cytoscape software and R programming tools. The present study indicated that ruxolitinib treatment elicited similar response equivalent to that of SARS-CoV-2 uninfected situation by inducing defense response in host against virus infection by RLR and NOD like receptor pathways. Further, the effect of ruxolitinib in SARS-CoV-2 infection was mainly caused by significant suppression of IFIH1, IRF7 and MX1 genes as well as inhibition of DDX58/IFIH1-mediated induction of interferon-I and -II signalling.
The spread of COVID-19 epidemic in some highly-impacted Indian states displayed a characteristic sub-exponential growth projected up to 3 May 2020, as a consequence of lockdown strategies, in addition to improvement of reproduction number (R), serial interval, and daily growth rate, but not case fatality rate (CFR). The effect of COVID-19 containment was more prominent in second phase of lockdown with declining R, which was still >1, suggesting the requirement of sustained interventions for effective containment of COVID-19 pandemic in Indian context.
The COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading respiratory illness caused with the infection of SARS-CoV-2. The COVID-19 data from India was compared with China and rest of the world. The average values of daily growth rate (DGR), case recovery rate (CRR), case fatality rate (CFR), serial interval (SI) of COVID-19 in India was 17%, 8.25%, and 1.87%, and 5.76 days respectively, as of April 9, 2020. The data driven estimates of basic reproduction number (R0), average reproduction number (R) and effective reproduction number (Re) were 1.03, 1.73, and 1.35, respectively. The results of exponential and SIR model showed higher estimates of R0, R and Re. The data driven as well as estimated COVID-19 cases reflect the growing nature of the epidemic in India and world excluding China, whereas the same in China reveal the involved population became infected with the disease and moved into the recovered stage. The epidemic size of India was estimated to be ~30,284 (as of April 15, 2020 with 12,370 infectious cases) with an estimated end of the epidemic on June 9, 2020. The Re values in India before and after lockdown were 1.62 and 1.37 respectively, with SI 5.52 days and 5.98 days, respectively, as of April 17, 2020, reflecting the effectiveness of lockdown strategies. Beyond April 17, 2020, our estimate of 24,431 COVID-19 infected cases with lockdown is 78% lower compared to the 112,042 case estimates in absence of lockdown, on April 27, 2020. To early end of the COVID-19 epidemic, strong social distancing is important.
Documentation in scientific literature is not available on prospective evaluation of the efficiency of the unlock measure related to COVID-19 transmission change points in India, projecting the infected population, planning suitable measures related to future interventions and lifting of restrictions so that the economic settings are not damaged beyond repair. We have applied SIR model and Bayesian approach combined with Monte Carlo Markov algorithms on the Indian COVID-19 daily new infected cases from 1 August 2020 to 30 September 2020. We showed that the COVID-19 epidemic declined after implementing unlock-4 measure and the identified change-points were consistent with the timelines of announced unlock-3 and unlock-4 measure, on 1 August 2020 and 1 September 2020, respectively, effectiveness of which were quantified as the change in both effective transmission rates (100% reduction) and the basic reproduction number attaining 1, implying measures taken to control and mitigate the COVID-19 epidemic in India managed to flatten and recede the epidemic curve.
Scrub typhus (ST), caused with the infection of Orientia tsutsugamushi, without eschar, is a febrile illness that mimics malaria (ML), dengue (DG), and other rickettsioses such as murine typhus (MT). Comparative analysis of microarray gene expression profiles of GSE16463 dataset, from O. tsutsugamushi infected monocytes, was performed to identify transcriptional signatures in ST discriminated from other acute febrile infections, accompanied by functional pathways and enrichment analysis in disease pathogenesis. A unique 31 ST-associated signature genes obtained in this study could help distinguish ST from other febrile illnesses DG, ML and MT. The functional pathways significantly enriched in ST disease group included translocation of ZAP-70 to immunological synapse, and phosphorylation of CD3 and TCR zeta chains, involving PTPN22 and CD3G genes, which could further help in the understanding of molecular pathophysiology of ST and discovering novel drug targets as well as vaccine developments.